Oil demand in Spain is forecast to enter into gradual decline beyond 2020. Market leaders Repsol and Cepsa will defend their fuels marketing positions, although the competitive landscape could change if regulators impose more restrictions on them. An additional threat is posed by low-cost fuel retailers, such as hypermarkets and automated site operators, but this depends on their ability to expand. Although margins are some of the highest in Europe, weakening demand and increased environmental legislation are driving the market leaders to improve their non-fuel retail offerings. There has been a rise in partnerships with big-name convenience retailers such as Carrefour and El Corte Ingles.