Upstream licences in Norway are awarded during regular licensing rounds. There are no biddable or negotiable tax items. Norway has a profit-based fiscal system. Corporate Income Tax (23%) and Special Tax (55%) payments are not deductible against either tax base, hence the total marginal tax rate is 78%. Norway is renowned for its tax stability. There are several tax incentives. Cash refunds for exploration drilling are in the centre of a heated debate in Norway.