Electric bicycles, also known as 'ebikes', are bicycles with an integrated electric motor to assist pedal-powered propulsion. The e-bike population in China grew from almost nothing in 2005 to exceed 200 million in just over a decade. At the same time, this biggest ever electrification in China's transport sector also led to a hugely increased demand for batteries – more specifically, lead batteries. However, with e-bikes reaching mass adoption within 10 years of their initial appearance on China's streets, and contributing one- third of total Chinese lead consumption, this now raises a series of questions: • Why did the rise of e-bikes happen in China? • How didhave e-bikes reshaped the lead market? • How will the future e-bike market evolve? • And finally, how will the trend affect the lead battery industry and lead demand? In this insight, we address these questions and explore the future prospects for this humble transport sector that kick--started China's astonishing demand for lead.