The surface operations comprise of the treatment of tailings and low-grade rock dumps in the North West and Gauteng provinces. They include the Vaal River, West Wits and Mine Waste Solutions operations. MWS is analysed separately and the accompanying analysis is based on the combined Vaal River and West Wits operations. Over the past five years there has been a significant fall in the head-grade with the attendant fall in gold production from 179koz in 2010 to 83koz in 2017. This high cost operation has to reduce cost base to keep the business profitable.