Against a backdrop of falling global prices and rising European demand, producers of flat steels in the EU have struggled to increase their share of the market. Over the last two years, imports have increased sharply but domestic production has failed to match that growth. This has resulted in EU steelmakers, who claim they cannot compete with subsidised foreign steel, lodging complaints to the European Commission. The results of EU anti-dumping (AD) investigations have mostly gone in favour of the steelmakers – protectionism is on the rise in the EU. But despite the imposition of AD duties there has been little change to total trade volumes, rather a disruption of trade flows. AD measures have been successful in either removing, or raising the cost of, the cheapest of imports entering the EU. Although this has enabled domestic producers to expand production, it has increased end-user costs.