Battery storage virtual power plants: From early pilots to gigawatt scale
Since initial announcements in 2016, VPPs using energy storage in the US have become more common as residential, commercial and industrial (C&I) customers install batteries. We tracked 42 announced virtual power plants in the US and interviewed 20 market participants. The key questions we set out to answer this report are: - What is the scale of this market? - Who are the market participants? - What are the business models enabling these deployments?