Market Report

North America virtual power plant (VPP) market: H1 2023

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Virtual power plants (VPPs) are a recent market construct for which there is much discussion but little data. This report analyzes the state of the VPP market today in the US and Canada, based on a database of over 500 VPP projects. Topics covered include project geographic, technological, and customer trends; drivers; monetization pathways and the commercial landscape of providers. Data presented includes VPP project counts by state, company, technology and other attributes; MW of capacity under management; number of integrations between VPP operators and DER platforms; and key utility DR programs and state incentive programs for DERs.

Table of contents

  1. Introductions and key findings
  2. Customer segments
  3. Markets
  4. Technology
  5. Competitive landscape
  6. Appendix

Tables and charts

  • Table of VPP Operators, DER Platforms, and Market Interfaces
  • Utility-procured VPPs by state and utility type
  • Number of VPPs by project driver and services provided
  • Number of CCA deployments by company
  • Market share of VPPs that service retail electricity providers
  • Megawatts of VPPs in California by offtaker type
  • Number of VPPs in California by VPP Operator
  • Number of VPPs bidding directly into Tier 2 RTO/ISO markets
  • Gigawatts of flexible capacity under management by company
  • Number of VPPs utilizing each major DER technology type
  • Number of VPPs utilizing stationary batteries by VPP Operator
  • Table of state battery storage incentives and program statuses
  • Number of VPPs incorporating battery storage by state
  • Number of VPPs that include residential customers by VPP Operator and offtaker type
  • Number of VPPs that include C&I customers by VPP Operator and offtaker type
  • Number of VPPs by Market Interface provider
  • Number of VPPs by DER Platform
  • Integrations with VPP Operators by DER Platform
  • Integrations with DER Platforms by VPP Operator
  • US cumulative grid-scale storage capacity vs RTO operating reserve requirements