Italy is southern Europe's largest oil and gas producer. Oil production will exceed 100,000 b/d in 2020 thanks to the long-awaited start-up of Total's Tempa Rossa field. Future output is underpinned by this and the largest field - Eni's Val d'Agri. Together, these deposits will account for almost 90% of Italian liquids by the mid-2020s. Gas production will remain around 500 mmcfd before increasing once Eni's Cassiopea project, offshore Sicily, comes onstream. Chronic regulatory and bureaucratic issues have intensified since 2018. New upstream and midstream projects have adapted in scope and scale to lower both their perceived environmental impact and the regulatory burden. This has led to a delay in first production of Tempa Rossa. FID at Cassiopea was deferred from 2014 and 2018. Val d'Agri Future Development is back in FEED, with FID expected in the early 2020s.