Upstream licences are awarded under concession terms through direct negotiations. The State may acquire up to 22.5% in a licence, which is carried through the development phase, with repayment from its share of revenue. From this, a 2% working interest is allocated to the landowners, who are not liable for any pre-production costs. The State must repay the associated costs back to the investor on the landholder's behalf. Royalty and Social Development Levy (SDL) are payable, both at 2% rate, on the wellhead revenue, though royalty is credited against income tax. From 2017, all projects without 'fiscal stability' clause are subject to petroleum income tax and additional profits tax payable by the contractor at 30% rate. Fiscal stability may be secured at the contract effective date in exchange of 2% increase in petroleum income tax.