This insight is a review of global supply and demand for fibres currently and out to 2050. It explores the key factors shaping the outlook and the impact these have on both fibre type and regional consumption growth. The insight also explores some of the important questions raised by the continuing rise in fibre demand into the future: • How will future cotton demand be met? Cotton supply faces significant challenges given the competition for land and flat yields. • Polyester staple fibre will need to explore other low-cost raw materials as the PET packaging industry aims for circularity. • The fibre, textile and apparel sector faces an enormous challenge if it is to meet the aspirational demand from consumers in Africa/Middle East, India and South East Asia. Per capita fibre consumption in these regions remains far below the global average and has the potential to lift fibre demand even higher.