On 3 July 2018, China’s State Council released the full text of a three-year action plan to curb air pollution by 2020. The plan follows through the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (APPCAP) of 2013, which laid the groundwork in improving air quality and removing capacity in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. The target area for air pollution control and prevention now includes the ‘2+26’ cities, 11 cities in the Fenwei plain and provinces in the Yangtze River Delta. Some provinces have already announced specific targets, but according to the central plan, greater focus will be placed on the sources of air pollution in the heating, power, metals and mining, and transport sectors. Inspections and production curbs will increase between September and March. Last year, it was limited to winter only. So, how is the plan targeting these key sectors and what challenges could they face?