What's next for green steel technologies?

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Steelmaking's green transition is crucial for driving global efforts to reduce emissions. Despite this, current commercial steelmaking technologies, such as the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) and the Blast Furnace (BF) - Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) process routes, still need significant technological advancements to meet the emission goals. Although the EAF technology represents a shift towards more electrified and lower-emission steelmaking processes, it faces limitations, including the lack of scrap, the necessity for high-grade iron ore, and product quality issues, making it unlikely that EAF could fully replace BF-BOF production in global markets. The Electric Smelting Furnace (ESF) is emerging as an alternative to bridge the gap, utilising DRI produced with low and medium-grade iron ores. The ESF converts DRI into liquid hot metal and integrates DRI plants seamlessly with existing BOF facilities, potentially reducing capex, operational complexity, and project execution time.

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