Oil and gas exploration in the Java Sea Basin extends back to the late 19th century. The onshore and near-shore sectors are densely explored, and have an established network of production and transportation infrastructure. In the last decade, exploration has targeted low-risk, near-field opportunities, yielding an average discovery size of less than 15 mmboe, though finds of just 1 to 2 mmboe were common. More remote parts of the basin remain under-explored and offer more material volume potential. The mature operating environment offers explorers low-cost opportunities with potentially short lead times to production. However, the Indonesian regulatory system is cumbersome and often slows progress towards development. Fiscal terms are also onerous for many explorers. Indonesian regulators are actively reviewing the fiscal elements in an effort to stimulate upstream activity and incentivise exploration. New fiscal terms are expected to be released in Q3 2016.