Operating costs have been cut across Europe with some countries achieving reductions in excess of 25%. Some of the biggest reductions have come from the North Sea where market deflation project efficiencies and increased production have driven down US$ operating costs per barrel by over 30%. Projects continue to be optimised. But confidence is also up with 16 projects added to the pre FID portfolio in Europe since last year. Although supply chain costs are expected to bottom out in 2017 we expect around 75% of capex and half of opex savings to remain in place by the end of the decade. This is part of Wood Mackenzie's 2017 series of regional cost insights focusing on capital and operating expenditure trends in the global upstream industry. Please look out for our coverage of other regions and global highlights.