Upstream licences in Federal Iraq are awarded through licensing rounds under Service Contracts terms. These terms have features of both a service contract and a production sharing contract (PSC) and hence are referred to as a Hybrid Service Contract. The last Hybrid Service Contract was awarded in May 2018. The hybrid service contract terms comprise of a royalty, cost fee, remuneration fee and income tax. Remuneration fee is the only biddable parameter and is a percentage of net revenue share. Royalty is levied at 25%, cost fee ceiling varies by oil price from 30% to 70%. Corporate income tax is levied at 35%.