Two become one - China's evolving lead smelting sector

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Report summary

The Chinese lead smelting industry has undergone two substantial periods of consolidation, firstly with the primary sector in 2008-2010, and then the secondary sector starting in the latter part of last decade and continuing to the present day. Driven mainly by environmental concerns, the most noticeable impact has been the widespread adoption of SKS smelting technology in the primary industry. Along with this technology came a more flexible attitude to raw material feed.

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    Two become one - China's evolving lead smelting sector

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Table of contents

  • Executive summary
  • Introduction
  • Technology
  • Legislation
  • Raw material supply
  • Cost
  • Conclusions

Tables and charts

This report includes 4 images and tables including:


  • Chinese primary versus secondary capability growth
  • Typical primary sinter and blast furnace flow sheet
  • Changes in Chinese primary smelting technology
  • Typical rotary furnace flow sheet for Chinese secondary smelters

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