Yuanqu copper refinery is located in Shanxi province, northern China, and operated by ZhongTiaoShan (ZTS) Nonferrous Metal Group, as an integrated copper refinery to extend the copper chain in 1988. The refinery started with a capacity of 10 ktpa and gradually expanded to 30 ktpa in the mid-90s. In response to stricter environmental restrictions and further development requirements, ZTS Group closed the old smelter and refinery in 2011, with a new replaced smelter being built in the following two years. The new Yuanqu refinery started in 2014, with a capacity expanding to 100 ktpa. The refinery expanded the capacity to 140 ktpa during several maintenance periods. The accompanying analysis includes only the production and cost of the smelter from 2021 onwards.