Casa de Pedra iron ore mine
Casa de Pedra is a large open-pit operation near the city of Congonhas in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The mine is owned by CSN and supplies ore to the company's Presidente Vargas steel mill, located 350 kilometres away, as well as to the export market through CSN's Itaguaí port, located 440 kilometres away. In December 2020, CSN announced it was embarking on a major expansion project aimed at more than tripling its current production capacity rate by 2031. Given the size and the complexity of the project (especially around the "greenfield" stages) as well as the big capital outlay required for its full development, we have pegged CSN's final output rate much lower than the company's goal.