Heding copper smelter and refinery was started in December 2010 and the refinery was commissioned in June 2014 with a nameplate capacity of 135 ktpa. In 2017, the refinery was expanded to 350 ktpa. Wood Mackenzie’s asset reports are built from the bottom up, incorporating a number of granular data metrics to ultimately produce our industry standard cash operating costs. This report contains a detailed asset note giving you a holistic view of the asset, including an operational overview through to a timeline of events from inception to now. This qualitative analysis is supplemented by the associated Excel download which enables interrogation of a whole series of cost and production metrics over the life of the asset.